One of the main features of eFax is the ability to send and receive faxes right from your email. Below you will find instructions on how to do this.

Note: This feature will only work from an email address associated with an active account in our system. If you don’t have an eFax with Vox Tandem, please contact your sales representative.

Addressing the email

To send a fax from email, compose a message from your email. In the To: field, type the 11 digit fax number (ex. 18885551212) followed by @faxmail.voxtandem.com.

Note: It is important to always use an 11 digit fax number when formatting the email. This means you need to include a “1” for faxing any number in the USA or CANADA. For international faxing, digits will vary but always include the country code.

Faxes sent via email are limited to 10 recipients or less. Attempting to send to more than 10 recipients will result in an error.

Populating info onto a cover page

If you have your cover page setting turned on, eFax will automatically take details from your email and populate it directly onto a cover page. To turn this feature off, click your initials in the bottom left, select “Your Settings” on the left, choose your ‘fax’ tab, and toggle it off:

If this setting is enabled, the details you enter into your email will populate onto your cover page:

Email subject line will populate RE: field of the cover page. (see screenshot below)

Body of email will populate the Comments field of the cover page. (see screenshot below)

Attach your document to fax

When sending a fax from email you can attach multiple documents types (see below). You can attach a single document or multiple documents (varying formats is fine) and they will be rendered, converted to a faxable format, and sent to your destination fax number. Max file size is 25MB. Max amount of file attachments is 25. 

Once your documents are attached, simply hit SEND. That’s it! We’ll take care of the rest.

Allowed Email Attachments:

Adobe Acrobat Documents (PDF)

Microsoft Office Files (DOC, DOCX, XLS, XLXS, PPT, PPTX)

Open Office Files (ODP, ODS, ODT)

Google Files (GDOC, GSLIDES, GSPREADSHEET)

Text Files (TXT, RTF)

Printer Files (PCL, EPS, PS)

Image Files (TIFF, TIF, GIF, PNG, JPEG, JPG)

Other Files (FXC, FODT, HTML)

Tips: If you create a file using a scanner or print to file, always choose the option of black and white for the output.

We’ve created this simple guide for you to provide to all of your users that will go over the initial basics, like how to view your fax number, how to send a fax, and how to navigate to your fax history.

Accessing the Service
Log into the service: https://fax.voxtandem.com (The username is an authenticated email address and passwords are set up upon first login). Upon FIRST login, you are required to reset the password for security purposes.

Changing the Password
This service uses an username and password unique to the system.

Steps to change the password:
– After you are logged into the service, select your name in the upper right hand corner
– From the drop down menu, select “settings”
– Select Password (located at the top)
– Enter in your current password, and create your new password.
– Select Change

Your Fax Number
Once logged into the portal, your fax number will be listed on the right hand side under “My Fax Numbers”

How to Send a Fax
Log into your account at https://fax.voxtandem.com. This will default you to your “send fax” view.

Steps to send a fax:
– Enter your 10 digit fax destination number in the box next to the flax icon
– You can also use the contact button to select a recipient from your contact list
– Next, select your file you with to upload, drag & drop from your computer, or upload a file from a synced cloud storage account
– Click the Send button. You’ll receive a pop up confirmation that will show the fax is processing

How to View Your History
– From the main page, locate the left side panel
– Select History
– In the top right, choose All
– Here is where you will find all inbound and outbound faxes
– Click on the three dots to the far right to view/print, download, and look at the info of your faxes (this screen will give information into why a particular fax failed)

Need help?
If you need additional help, feel free to contact your admin team directly, or use the in-app support, located in the bottom right hand corner of the Documo portal.

Make calls, view the status of colleagues, chat, schedule a video conference and check voicemail from your desktop. 

  1. Customer is required to log into into the webclient for their extension on the windows machine the windows app is to be installed.
  2. https://(COMPANYNAME).my3cx.us:5001/webclient
  3. Once logged into the webclient, on the top left hand corner there is a windows logo, please click, this will bring up a pop up.

4.

5. Follow the pop up instructions to install the desktop application. Once the desktop app is successfully installed, please click the provision button, the desktop client will automatically provision itself.

Make calls, view the status of colleagues, chat, schedule a video conference and check voicemail from your desktop. 

Need to create an ad-hoc web meeting? Simply click on the WebMeeting icon in the bottom menu to open up your WebMeeting room.

Open the side menu to access useful features such as Queue Manager, Wallboard and Receptionist view for advanced call management, show and hide your BLFs, and configure your settings.

Install the client to get started

Download the latest version of the client. In the setup wizard, accept the License Agreement terms and continue to install. 

When installation is complete, you can quickly and easily configure your office extension by going to your 3CX Welcome Email and opening the configuration file attached. Your 3CX Windows Client should display your status as “On Hook”.

And that’s it! You’re ready to start making calls.

Note: The 3CX Windows Client requires V16, Windows 10 only. If you are unsure or run into any problems, contact your administrator. 

IP phone or softphone – whatever works for you

You can easily switch between “Softphone” and “CTI” mode from the phone selector beneath your name and status. 

softphone cti mode

Softphone: Allows you to make and receive calls through your PC or laptop without the need for a deskphone

CTI: CTI mode enables you to make and receive calls from the deskphone, as well as control the device through the app. View supported IP phones.

Manage your status

Status is a great way to inform colleagues of your availability and view who is on hand to take your calls. 

Simply click on the status selector beneath your name and choose from AvailableAwayDo Not DisturbLunch, and Business Trip.

Click the arrow next to the status to customize with a message and call forwarding options.

Making a call

The phonebook enables you to effortlessly locate extensions by searching with name, number or email address, or simply enter external numbers via the dialpad. Click call and that’s it!

What’s more, during a call you can seamlessly perform various functions with just a mouse click.

  1. “Transfer” will transfer the call without the need for you to speak to the receiver, a “Blind Transfer”.
  2. “Att.transfer” will transfer the call after you first speak to the receiver to see if they accept the call, an “Attended Transfer”.
  3. “Conference” allows you to create an ad hoc conference call, adding more participants to join the conversation.
  4. “Rec” allows you to record your conversation.
  5. “Video” will elevate your call to a video call with the additional option of screen sharing. 

Create or Schedule a Video conference

While creating your conference, you can easily choose between two types of video conference: WebMeeting or Webinar. 

To change the video conferencing profile in the Windows client:

  1. Click the Settings”  button. 
  2. Choose between WebMeeting Profile” or “Webinar Profile.”
  3. There are default settings for each profile, but you can adjust them as per your preferences. You can specify:
  • Participants Rights: Audio, Video and Chat.
  • Meeting options: Allow Participant Control, Everyone is an organizer, Organizer connects first, Hide Names.
  • Bandwidth Settings: Meeting Location and Bitrate. 

Customize your settings

Personalize your app experience in “Settings” where you can view and change audio and video options, forwarding rules and your app theme. You can also re-register your extension for any changes to take effect and request your “Welcome Email” to be re-sent.

  • “Status Configuration”: Configure forwarding rules and exceptions for different statuses.
  • “Configure Accounts”: Easily switch between different accounts – useful for hotdesking.
  • “Audio Options” & “Video Options”: Select your output and input devices, and configure advanced options. 
  • “Hot Keys”: View and edit keyboard shortcuts to control your app.
  • “Advanced Settings”: Here you can change Behavior (such as bringing the app to front), Language, enable Auto Answer and view Integration options. 
  • “Themes”: Change your theme or set a custom image.

Businesses face enough challenges – customer communication doesn’t need to be one of them. We’re here to help by making it easier than ever to upgrade with Vox Tandem and the latest Snom devices with our Back-to-Business Incentives.

back-to-business-incentives-from-Snom

We cleared the first operational hurdle for companies ranging from the startup to enterprise-level: Upfront Costs. Keep reading to learn how you might reduce your monthly operating costs through our three programs designed to alleviate some of the critical barriers preventing businesses like yours from upgrading your devices. 

First, you might be wondering: “Why should we upgrade our phones when our budgets are tighter than ever before?” Well, upgrading your devices to VoIP can save on monthly bills, in a few ways. First, by cutting the requirement for traditional landlines. Second, they are scalable in real-time so you’re only paying for the services and capacity that you need. Thirdly, cloud-based VoIP systems can be overseen by existing IT staff, reducing the need for expensive, specialized technical support. And perhaps most importantly, VoIP enables the latest features like international calling, voicemail, auto-attendants, and more, without pricey a la cart service fees.

back-to-business-incentives

You can read many other reasons this works from experts who’ve detailed how VoIP services save businesses money at length (E.G., Ring CentralVoIP Review). But just a hint: You can save up to 60 percent on your monthly phone bills with VoIP. 

TMCNet recently explored the various reasons why upgrading technology now can help businesses more effectively adjust to meet their future needs. “Snom’s solutions provide companies – from those with only a few employees to enterprises with thousands –with the flexibility, mobility, voice quality, and security they need to adapt to these constantly evolving needs.” You can read the full article here to learn more about how the solutions deploying today will become permanently ingrained in our future work environments – whether remote, hybrid, or in-office.

Alright, so, about those three Back-to-Business Programs: 

1. New Lower Prices on all SNOM products

We recognize that budgets are tight, and businesses might be struggling. So, effective April 1, 2021, we’ve lowered the prices on our current product line. For example, this means you can save between 15 to 40 percent on the Snom D7xx SIP Desk Phone Series. Why the range? Because as the manufacturer, we’ve lowered the price of the device itself. In doing so, we can pass those savings on to you from the distributors and service providers, too. 

2.  Trade-In Rebates (UPDATED)

Our popular trade-in rebate program offers cashback directly to businesses (end-customers) who replace five or more of their old phones with eligible new Snom phones. If you’re not familiar with the program, you can check out its full details on our previous blog or visit info.snomrewards.com. Ultimately, you can earn up to $35 back per phone and save up to $4,000 or more when you upgrade up to 200 of your old phones. New devices and extra cash to spend? That’s a WIN-WIN in our book! UPDATED: Program Term – This trade-in rebate program (“Program”) is valid from July 15, 2021 – March 31, 2022.

trade in rebate CTA button

3. Devices-as-a-Service, a.k.a. Device Rental

Not sure if device ownership makes sense for your business or short of the upfront cash (or CapEx) to make it happen? Devices-as-a-Service, or Daas, is a low-cost rental program that can help remove these barriers. Businesses can access the latest Snom SIP telephony solutions with low monthly payments, all delivered by a simple, monthly service cost from Vox Tandem. DaaS enables more frequent device upgrades thanks to the removal of the upfront CapEx and the lack of commitment necessary for direct product ownership so that businesses can scale up or down in real-time to best match their needs.

So, there you have it. Three Back-to-Business Incentives from Vox Tandem and Snom developed to provide the greatest access possible and ensure businesses can connect with every customer through feature-rich technology that meets their needs now

Questions? Contact the Vox Tandem team at sales@voxtandem.com or click HERE to learn more!

best voip video conferencing software

3CX has been ranked as #1 provider of VoIP Phone Services and Web Conferencing Software in the most recent round of awards announced by Digital.com.

LONDON, UK, 11TH MARCH 2021 – 3CX has been recognized in Digital.com’s 2021 Awards as the leading provider of VoIP Phone Services and the Best Web Conferencing Software. Digital.com considered more than 90 top-notch software companies in their pursuit to provide independent reviews openly available to small businesses looking for reliable solutions.

Both awards applauded 3CX’s intuitive and user-friendly interface, high quality product and easy integration. Features such as contact managementClick-to-Call and SIP trunking were particularly well  received by the assessment team and 3CX users alike. The review emphasized that the unified communications solution appealed even to the most budget-conscious business owners. The software was able to accommodate the growing business demands and communication challenges at the time of the pandemic, while offering excellent value for money.

For more information and the full list of software companies evaluated by Digital.com, please visit https://digital.com/voip-phone-services/ and https://digital.com/web-conferencing-software/

About 3CX (www.3cx.com)

3CX is the developer of an open standards communications solution which innovates business connectivity and collaboration, replacing proprietary PBXs. The award-winning software enables companies of all sizes to cut telco costs, boost employee productivity, and enhance the customer experience.

With integrated video conferencing, apps for Android and iOS, website live chat, SMS and Facebook Messaging integration, 3CX offers companies a complete communications package out of the box.

250,000 customers worldwide use 3CX including McDonalds, Hugo Boss, Ramada Plaza Antwerp, Harley Davidson, Wilson Sporting Goods and Pepsi. Maintaining its global presence, 3CX has offices in the U.S., U.K., Germany, South Africa, Russia and Australia. Visit 3CX on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter.

About Digital.com (digital.com)

Digital.com reviews and compares the best products, services, and software for running or growing a small business website or online shop. The platform collects twitter comments and uses sentiment analysis to score companies and their products. Digital.com was founded in 2015 and formerly known as Review Squirrel. To learn more, visit https://digital.com/. By Amy Elliott | April 21st, 2021

Introduction

Digital Receptionist in 3CX Management Console

The 3CX “Digital Receptionist” function can answer phone calls automatically and present callers with an Auto Attendant or IVR (Interactive Voice Response) options menu, e.g. “For sales, press 1. For support, press 2 or wait to be transferred to the operator”

You can configure digital receptionists with their own extension number and set these to answer calls based on the number called and the time the call is received, i.e. inside or outside office hours. For example, you can have a different prompt for out of office hours to not include the option(s) to transfer the call to unavailable groups/queues.

Recording a Menu Prompt

To create your digital receptionist, you must first write down and then record the menu options presented to the caller, e.g. “Welcome to Company XYZ. For sales, press 1. For support, press 2 or wait for an operator.”

📝 Note: It is recommended to announce the number the user needs to press after the option, i.e. “For sales, press 1”.

Creating a Digital Receptionist

Select Digital Receptionist” in the 3CX Management Console and click “Add”:

Digital Receptionist / IVR Options in 3CX Management Console
  1. Specify a name and extension for the digital receptionist.
  2. Click on the Record” button, enter your extension number, the “Audio File Name” and click “OK” to get a call to record the prompt. Do not use reserved characters (< > : ” / \ | ? * &) in the prompt filename.
  3. Alternatively, click on the Upload” button and specify a file that you previously recorded as WAV in PCM, 8 kHz, 16 bit, Mono.

📝 Note: In Windows Sound Recorder you must use the “Save As” option to save to this format. Do not use MP3 format. 

  1. Select a custom prompt language in “Digital Receptionist Language” if required. You can download additional prompt languages in “Settings” > “System Prompts” > “Updates”.
  2. Select the “Type” for this Digital Receptionist:
  1. “Standard” – specify actions for up to ten (0 – 9) menu options, i.e. connect to the extension or virtual extension number for a ring group, call queue, another digital receptionist or voicemail.
  2. “DTMF Input” – set user menu options based on custom DTMF codes with up to nine (9) digits each, e.g. “010”. For each option, select the action and destination, i.e. the extension or virtual extension number for a ring group, call queue, another digital receptionist or voicemail.

📄 Note: The initial prompt is repeated until a correct DTMF code is entered.

  1. “Launch Script” – for advanced users, to optionally collect the caller’s input, launch an external script and execute the defined action based on the script’s exit code. See more info in this guide.
  2. “Wake up” – creates a single Wake Up / Reminder service used by hotel guests to call and set automated wake-up and reminder calls.
  3. “MS Exchange” – use to delegate 3CX PBX voicemail functionality to Exchange server as described in the MS Exchange Server Unified Messaging guide.
  1. Optionally link a DID number to this Digital Receptionist.
  2. In “Destination for invalid or no DTMF input/script timeout” set the timeout in seconds and the actions to perform on timeout and on invalid input.
  3. Click OK” to save the Digital Receptionist.

Callers Can Dial an Extension Directly

Whilst a digital receptionist prompt is playing, a caller can enter the extension number to call directly and connect to the extension without going through a receptionist. Simply instruct your callers in the voice prompt on how to use this feature, e.g. “Welcome to Company XYZ. If you know the extension number to call, you can enter it now. Otherwise, for sales press 1. For support press 2.”

work from home
Cogent said some customers delayed service purchases and closed satellite offices amid the pandemic.

Cogent Communications posted modest increases in off-net and on-net services revenue during the fourth quarter of 2020, though company executives acknowledged Cogent’s revenue growth is still being impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic.

In its quarterly report issued this morning, Cogent announced service revenue of $143.9 million for the fourth quarter of 2020, an increase of 1.1% from the previous quarter and about 2.6% year over year. The company also reported service revenue of $568.1 million for the full year of 2020, up 4% from the previous year. Results were positively impacted by changing foreign exchange values, according to Cogent.

Looking deeper, Cogent CEO and Chairman Dave Schaeffer said on Cogent’s quarterly earnings call today that the company’s corporate communications business saw revenue declines of 3.9% year over year for the fourth quarter, and 2.1% compared to the third quarter of 2020. Cogent’s network-centric business experienced a stronger fourth quarter of 2020, with revenue up 7.7% year over year and more than 15% sequentially.

Cogent CFO Sean Wallace, also speaking on the call, added “We believe the growth rate of our corporate revenues was directly impacted by office occupancy changes due to Covid-19.” Wallace said some customers delayed procurement and installation of services, and other closed satellite offices and workers were sent home to work remotely, trends which affected demand.

Still, Wallace noted that the negative trends were more prominent in off-net office buildings and among customers using Cogent’s 100 Mbps services and lower-bandwidth circuits. He said demand for Cogent’s 1 Gbps service remained strong with existing customers keeping upgrades on track.

Additionally, Cogent noted that some pandemic-related trends can lead to positive revenue development in some areas. For example, growth in remote networking from home is likely to continue to increase demand for high-capacity circuits to end users. Cogent also is helped by the fact that its revenue base is not highly concentrated around a small number of large customers, Schaeffer said.

During the early months of the pandemic, Cogent provided ample evidence of how radical changes in office environments, work-from-home policies and related networking needs can quickly impact service providers. For example, last spring Cogent saw demand for corporate bandwidth and related 1 Gbps upgrades spike, but by late summer, the decline in office space was beginning to cause concerns.

by Dan O’Shea | Feb 25, 2021 10:18am | https://www.fiercetelecom.com/telecom/cogent-covid-19-uncertainty-still-impacting-revenue

School districts across the country expect the demand for online learning options to remain above pre-pandemic levels. Some are launching new virtual schools or preparing to accommodate future enrollment. BY BRANDON PAYKAMIAN / MARCH 24, 2021

School districts across the country expect the demand for online learning options to remain above pre-pandemic levels. Some are launching new virtual schools or preparing to accommodate future enrollment. BY BRANDON PAYKAMIAN / MARCH 24, 2021

While virtual learning and teaching have come with a plethora of challenges, some K-12 educators are more confident than ever about their remote capabilities after more than a year of virtual schooling during COVID-19 school closures. According to a February survey by the RAND Corporation American School District Panel, about 20 percent of schools now plan to establish and expand online courses for the handful of families who’ve welcomed the change of pace and flexibility of virtual learning.

Education officials from coast to coast say they’re bracing for an unprecedented increase in demand for online learning options in the years to come. And plans are underway to help meet that demand via the establishment of new virtual academies and the expansion of existing programs.

Jordan Virtual Academy Established in Utah

In Utah’s Jordan School District, officials are gearing up to offer the system’s newly established Jordan Virtual Learning Academy for students next fall. The new school, announced in December, is projected to serve at least 1,200 of the district’s current 3,000 virtual students through virtual core curriculum courses found elsewhere in the district, including math, reading and the sciences.

Principal Spencer Campbell said most of the new academy’s elementary students will attend virtual classes together in the morning, while others can choose to complete coursework asynchronously, meaning they can view lectures and finish coursework according to their schedules. Students can also choose to take a handful of hands-on art courses at in-person district campuses.

“There’s a little more flexibility as you move up through the [grade] levels,” he noted.

Campbell, a former virtual learning trainer, said educators feel more prepared to teach virtual classes after nearly a year of facilitating remote learning. He noted that 40 to 50 teachers from within the district have already applied to work with the new academy, made up of Kings Peak High School, Kelsey Peak Virtual Middle School, and Rocky Peak Virtual Elementary School.

“We had a lot of interest. Some of our positions had five, six, seven applicants that were within the district,” he said. “We also hired special ed teachers as well to work with our special needs students.”

Since most of the school’s staff come from within Jordan, officials expect the academy to be a cost-effective solution funded mainly through the district. However, administrators had not determined the exact cost of the school as of Wednesday. Campbell explained that while Utah’s schools are funded according to enrollment, some students may elect to take a couple classes virtually and others in-person. Because of this, he said, administrators are still exploring funding mechanisms.

“If we’re talking any student taking an online course, it will probably be about 2,000, 2,200. A lot of those will come from the high school level just taking one or two classes,” he said. “Full-time students, I would imagine, will be about 800 or 1,000.”

Butterfield Canyon Elementary School fifth-grade instructor Kasey Chambers said educators and administrators in the district had been discussing a new virtual academy since before the pandemic put the need at the forefront and put teachers’ virtual capabilities to the test. Though many were initially reluctant about going virtual, Chambers said she’s now looking forward to being part of something new in Jordan next semester.

“The challenge is that nobody has done this before for the majority of the time. We were all kind of thrust into it and doing the best we can with our expertise. As the year has progressed, we’ve gotten pretty good at it,” she said. “When the school opens, we’re really going to up our game.”

CAVA Hires More Teachers to Meet Demand

California Virtual Academies (CAVA) recently hired over 100 teachers to help facilitate enrollment growth, which has reached its brim with more than 15,000 students during the 2020-21 school year. Over the course of the pandemic, the K-12 charter academy system has witnessed growth not seen since its founding nearly 20 years ago.

April Warren, CAVA’s head of schools, said the school expects to retain many of these new students who enrolled for the first time during the 2020-21 school year, though projections for the fall still remain largely speculative. While many of those new students are new to full-time virtual learning, Warren thinks CAVA is up to the task of meeting the growing demand for online classes.

“We are hopeful many of those students will stay with us for the upcoming school year,” she said. “It is [still] too early to tell at this time what the enrollment for the upcoming school year will look like.”

Through the help of state funding, Warren said CAVA students can access comprehensive courses found in most brick-and-mortar schools, including world language courses. The school also offers Advanced Placement, career technical education and dual enrollment options that allow high school students to take college courses for both college and high school credits. The school also tailors instruction for some special needs students.

Similar to other online schools offering asynchronous learning options, Warren said CAVA gives students and teachers more flexibility throughout the school year compared to other traditional in-person public schools.

“While some traditional school experiences are not available in our setting — for example, competitive sports — students have more flexibility and support to develop other interests, such as afterschool jobs, community service or travel experiences,” she said. “For educators, they’re a part of a school designed to meet the individual needs of students … The model allows them to work with students individually or in small groups in ways the traditional school model struggles to provide.”

NC Virtual Expects Continued Growth

NC Virtual, a tuition-free supplemental online school in North Carolina, offers about 130 different courses and employs nearly 750 part-time and full-time instructors who now teach tens of thousands of students.

Executive Director Eliz Colbert said online learning at NC Virtual has been gaining popularity over the years since the school was established in 2007, but the pandemic boosted enrollment in the spring of 2020 and the 2020-21 school year.

“For the last several years, NC Virtual has averaged enrollment numbers of around 50,000 students in full-course credit classes. This year, we are on pace to exceed 60,000. I say ‘full-credit courses’ because some online schools count course enrollments by half credits. That is an important distinction to note,” she said in an email. “If we counted half credits, we would be exceeding 100,000.”

According to Colbert, the school is now planning to expand its course catalog, which currently includes foreign language classes and career courses, as well as K-12 core classes found in other public schools.

“We have 11 different world languages, a group of career technical education courses, and about 16 Advanced Placement courses,” she said, adding that courses sometimes vary by semester. “We are also growing our middle school course offerings.”

The school operates under a state enrollment-based funding formula similar to California, which works through a three-year rolling projection model so schools can budget ahead of each year, with reserve funds for drastic changes in enrollment.

“If a student enrolls for one class with us and the other six at their local [in-person] school, NC Virtual gets the money for the percentage of the one course through the average daily membership (ADM) formula for that particular district,” Colbert explained.

While learning loss has been a major concern for schools not used to full-time remote learning, Colbert noted that the school’s state test scores and AP scores generally match up well when compared with scores from the state’s in-person public school students, though state testing data has been limited during the pandemic.

Colbert said other schools often look to NC Virtual for help facilitating remote learning through programs like its Partnership Courses program. Colbert said programs such as this have “taken off” faster than expected during the pandemic as teachers and administrators throughout North Carolina continue navigating the challenges of virtual learning.

“Many districts in North Carolina want local virtual academies, but building a standards-aligned course catalog is most difficult,” she said.

Brandon Paykamian Staff Writer

Brandon Paykamian is a staff writer for Government Technology. He has a bachelor’s degree in journalism from East Tennessee State University and more than four years of experience as a multimedia reporter, mainly focusing on public education and higher ed.